小泉八雲記念館 | Lafcadio Hearn Memorial Museum

Foreword

Patrick Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904) spent his most impressionable childhood years, those between the ages of 2 and 13, in Ireland. He died in Japan at the age of 54 as Koizumi Yakumo.

Hearn had many painful memories of his Irish years. During that time, his father left his beloved mother, he rebelled against his strict Catholic upbringing, he developed a fear of ghosts and Gothic imagery, and he suffered the effects of his great-aunt’s bankruptcy. When he moved to the USA, he ceased to use his first name Patrick.

His experiences and memories of that time remained with him throughout his life. However, the time he spent in an Irish cultural environment culti

vated a powerful imagination, which led to the intuitive understanding he had of Japanese folk culture in his later life. In piecing together the few remaining records of his childhood years, The Beginning of Memory seeks to explore the Irish elements flowing through Hearn.

記憶のはじまりを紐解く
―展示概要

この企画展では、幼いラフカディオが置かれていた 1)人的環境、2)ケルト口承文化との出会い、3)彼を苦しめた恐怖体験などが、その後の人生にどのような影響を及ぼしたのかに着目しながら、年代を追ってパネルや写真展示で幼年時代を描いていきます。また、アイルランドでの体験がつづられた作品や弟への手紙、ケルトと呼応するような作品が収録された初版本と直筆原稿、ハーンに関する伝記などを合わせて展示し、ハーンが愛した日本の文化とアイルランドの伝承文化の響き合いを探っていきます。

1)ハーンを取り巻く人々

そもそもハーン家はアングロ・アイリッシュと言われるプロテスタントの家系で、代々英国陸軍とアイルランド教会に仕えるというゆるぎない伝統を保持していました。そこに現れた異教徒の母子は、この家族にとってかなり奇異な存在だったと想像できます。パトリックの養母役を買って出た、カトリック教に改宗した大叔母サラ・ブレナン、父の再婚者や、突然現れた実弟ジェイムズ、ブレナン夫人を破産に追い込んだヘンリー・モリヌーなど、ラフカディオを取り巻く人々によって展開していくイギリスを含む約14年間を、残された記録や弟への手紙(『アトランティック・マンスリー』「ラフカディオ・ハーンの弟」ヘンリー・ニーランド〈1923〉)、当時の風景写真(アイルランド国立図書館所蔵)やハーンに関する伝記(エリザベス・ビスランド編著『ラフカディオ・ハーンの人生と手紙』〈1906〉、ニナ・ケナード『ラフカディオ・ハーン』〈1912〉、O. W. フロスト『若き日のラフカディオ・ハーン』〈1957〉、ポール・マレイ『ファンタスティック・ジャーニー』〈1993〉)などを参考に、当時の様子を思い起こしてみたいと思います。

2)ケルト口承文化との出会い

アイルランドは、万物に精霊の存在を認めるといわれるケルトの民俗宗教ドルイドの精神が今もキリスト教と融合しつつ継承される国で、元来文字を持たなかったケルト民族ゆえに、オーラル・コミュニケーションの伝統も受け継がれてきました。ブレナン夫人に雇われた乳母キャサリン・コステロを通して多彩なケルトの口承文化に触れることができた経験は、彼をイマジネーションの世界へと駆り立て、異界への憧れと畏怖が作品の中に脈々と流れています。「夏の日の夢」(『東の国から』1895)の浦島太郎の再話や、「勝五郎の再生」(『仏の畑の落穂』1897)、「力ばか」(『怪談』1904)などの再生譚などはいずれも、ケルトの神話・伝説や妖精譚に類似していることがわかります。

3)恐怖体験

長く暗いアイルランドの冬の暮らしと陰気な室内は、ラフカディオにとっては恐怖に満ちた耐え難いものでした。彼はしばしばその家に住み着いている(と思い込んでいた)恐ろしい幽霊や精霊などを見て常にそれらにつきまとわれていると感じ、そのようなものに対する恐怖は、ハーンの魂の奥底に深く刻み込まれ、後年の彼の作品の中に満ち溢れていると言えます。実際、幼年時代の恐怖の記憶を「ゴシックの恐怖」「夢魔の感触」(『影』1900)の中で言及しています。また、顔のないジェーンの幽霊を見た体験談「カズン・ジェーン(私の守護天使)」(直筆原稿/松江市立中央図書館所蔵)は、来日後「むじな」の話の再話に生かされることになります。この恐怖体験とケルトの口承文芸とがハーンの中で渦を巻き、再話文学へと昇華していったのです。

ハーンは弟ジェイムズに宛てた手紙でアイルランドへの恨みともとれる言葉を綴っていますが、晩年の「ひまわり」(『怪談』1904)という作品の中で、ふと蘇ってきた従兄のロバートと遊んだ遠い昔の記憶は、むしろ幼少期を過ごしたアイルランドへの切ない郷愁とも受け取れます。後年、ハーンはアイルランドの国民的詩人W. B. イェイツに宛てた手紙の中で次のように告白しています。

…ダブリンのアッパー・リーソン通りに住み、私には妖精譚や怪談を語ってくれたコナハト出身の乳母がいました。だから私はアイルランドのものを愛すべきだし、また実際愛しているのです。
(1901年9月24日、W. B. イェイツ宛て書簡より)

家族にも語らなかったアイルランドへの愛情をイェイツにだけ告白したハーンの複雑な心情が想像できますが、後年の作品の中には、彼の記憶の片隅からアイルランド的な断片が表に出てきたと言えるでしょう。つまり、ラフカディオ・ハーンが描いた日本は、きわめてアイルランド的想像力を通してみた世界だということが言えるのではないでしょうか。

Exhibition Outline
—Exploring the Beginning of Memory

This exhibition uses panels and photographs to depict each period of Hearn’s childhood. It focuses on how his later life was affected by 1) the family and social environment of his early years 2) his encounters with Celtic oral tradition, and 3) the traumas he experienced as a boy. On display are works which describe his experiences in Ireland, letters to his younger brother, first editions of his works which allude to Celtic culture, handwritten manuscripts, and biographical information. The exhibition seeks to explore the resonance between Japanese folk culture, of which Hearn was very fond, and the oral tradition of Ireland.

1) The family and social environment

The Hearn family was Protestant Anglo-Irish, and had served the British Army and the Irish church for generations. The family must have regarded the mother and young child from a foreign country and culture as an odd presence in their lives. The exhibition examines the influence the family and social environment had on Hearn over a period of 14 years, including his time in England, and aims to recapture that period of his life. The people around Hearn at that time included Sarah Brenane, his great-aunt and guardian who converted to Catholicism, his father’s second wife, his younger brother James, who suddenly appeared in his life, and Henry Molynuex, the distant relative whose business failure led to Sarah’s bankruptcy. References used include the following: Hearn’s memories, and letters to his younger brother in The Atlantic Monthly “Lafcadio Hearn’s Brother” by Henry Kneeland (1923), photographs of Ireland during the period Hearn lived there (National Library of Ireland collection), and the following biographies: The Life and Letters of Lafcadio Hearn by Elizabeth Bisland (1906), Lafcadio Hearn by Nina Kennard (1912), Young Hearn by O.W. Frost (1957), and A Fantastic Journey by Paul Murray (1993).

2) Encounters with Celtic oral tradition

In Ireland, the animistic Celtic folk religion of the Druids is fused with Christianity. Originally, the Celts did not have a written language, so traditions were passed down orally. Hearn encountered the Celtic oral tradition through his nurse, Catherine Costello, who was employed by Sarah Brenane. The stories he heard fuelled his imagination, and the fascination and awe he developed for the spirit world run through his works. His retelling of Urashima in “The Dream of a Summer Day” (Out of the East, 1895), and stories of reincarnation such as “The Rebirth of Katsugoro” (Gleanings in Buddha-Fields, 1897), and “Riki-Baka” (Kwaidan, 1904) show similarities with Celtic myths, folklore and fairytales.

3) Traumatic experiences

Lafcadio found Ireland’s long dark winters and the gloomy atmosphere indoors unbearably frightening. In the house, he often saw what he thought were terrifying ghosts and spirits, and believed himself to be haunted by them. This terror remained deep within his soul, and can be seen in abundance in his later works. He recalls the traumatic experiences of his childhood in “Gothic Horror” and “Nightmare-Touch” (Shadowings, 1900). In “Cousin Jane” (handwritten manuscript, Matsue Municipal Library collection), he tells of his encounter with Jane, a guest at his great-aunt’s house, who he saw one day as a faceless ghost. This experience was used in his retelling of “Mujina”, which he wrote in Japan. The terrifying childhood memories and his knowledge of Celtic folklore were sublimated in the Japanese stories he retold.

A letter sent from Hearn to his younger brother James contains negative sentiments about Ireland. However, “Hi-Mawari” (Kwaidan, 1904), which he wrote in his final years, shows glimpses of a heartrending nostalgia for his childhood years in Ireland, as he recalls the faint memory of playing with his cousin Robert.

Also, in a letter sent to the famous Irish poet W. B. Yeats, he made the following remarks about his earlier life:

“I had a Connaught nurse who told me fairy tales and ghost stories. So I ought to love Irish things, and do.”
(Letter to W. B. Yeats, 24 September, 1901)

Hearn never spoke to his family about Ireland, and only expressed his affection for the country to Yeats. Given his experiences, one can imagine the conflicted feelings he had for his childhood home. However, fragments of memories of Ireland come to the fore in his later works, and it can be said that the Japan Hearn portrayed was a world seen through a vivid Irish imagination.

アイルランドでの動き

2015年6月、アイルランド南東部に位置するウォーターフォード県にあるトラモアという小さな町に「小泉八雲庭園」がオープンすることが決まりました。住民の一人が発案し町の有志たちが集まって開園に向けて準備を進めています。松江市は、この庭園に小泉八雲のレリーフ(倉澤實作)を送ることを決めました。

また、10月には“The Open Mind of Patrick Lafcadio Hearn”という展覧会が、ダブリン・リトル・ミュージアムで開催されることが決まり、『帰郷』と題されたこのエキシビションで、小泉八雲記念館の所蔵品が何点か展示されることになりました。企画展「記憶のはじまり」は、ちょうど時期を合わせてダブリン・リトル・ミュージアムの展覧会とリンクすることになります。また、松江出身の佐野史郎さんと山本恭司さんによる「小泉八雲・朗読の夕べ」は今年で10回を数え、『稀人(まろうど)―彼方より訪れしもの』と題してアイルランド国内3か所での公演が予定されています。この朗読パフォーマンスは、世界に向けてハーン文学を紹介するという大きな役割を担っています。

アイルランド国内では、小泉八雲がアイルランドにとって大切な存在だということを改めて国民が認識しつつあり、ハーンを見直す動きが見られ始めたことは大変意義深いことです。ハーンの帰郷を喜ぶとともに、この企画展が今後の松江とトラモア、そしてレフカダ、ニューオーリンズとのネットワークの構築につながっていくことを期待したいと思います。

Events in Ireland

The Lafcadio Hearn Gardens will open in June, 2015, in the small town of Tramore, County Waterford, in south-east Ireland. The idea for the gardens was proposed by a resident of the town, and local volunteers are preparing for the opening. Matsue City will send a relief of Lafcadio Hearn (created by Minoru Kurasawa) to the gardens. In October, a delegation from Japan will participate in the unveiling ceremony.

Also, in October, The Little Museum of Dublin will hold an exhibition called The Open Mind of Patrick Lafcadio Hearn — Coming Home. Artefacts from the collection of the Lafcadio Hearn Memorial Museum in Japan will be on display. This exhibition, The Beginning of Memory, is held to coincide with the exhibition in Dublin. Reading performances of Maraudo — Visitors from the World Beyond by Shiro Sano and Kyoji Yamamoto, who are both from Matsue, will be held in three locations in Ireland. Sano and Yamamoto have been performing Hearn’s works for ten years, and their performances play an important role in introducing the literature of Hearn to the world.

It is deeply significant that the Irish people are once again recognizing the importance of Hearn, and are starting to look at him anew. We are delighted to welcome Hearn home, and hope that this exhibition leads to the development of ties between Matsue and Tramore, and also Lefkada and New Orleans.

ラフカディオ・ハーンのアイルランド時代

幼いパトリック・ラフカディオ・ハーンは、1852年8月1日、母ローザに連れられて生誕地ギリシャ・レフカダから父チャールズの実家のあるアイルランドのダブリンに到着しました。わずか2歳のときのことです。母子の生活については多くを語られていませんが、宗教も気候も言語も全く異なった異国での生活は、二人にとって困難なものでした。

これらの理由から精神を病んだローザとチャールズの関係は冷え、ローザは1854年の夏ラフカディオを残しひとり故郷ギリシャに帰っていき、その後母子が会うことは二度とありませんでした。彼は大叔母のサラ・ブレナンに引き取られ、残されたラフカディオの子守り役として今でもケルト文化が色濃く残るコナハト出身の乳母が雇われ、アッパー・リースン通り73番地で暮らし始めました。

当時裕福だったブレナン夫人に連れられ、少年ラフカディオは南部ウォーターフォード州のトラモアの別荘で過ごしたり、伯母のキャサリン・エルウッドが住むメイヨー州コングへと遊びに行き、そこでケルトの妖精譚や怪談をたくさん聞いたり、泳ぎを覚えたりして、束の間の幸せな時間を過ごしています。しかし母の帰国後、父チャールズはかつてより想いを寄せていたアリシア・ゴスリン・クロフォードと再婚し、1857年の夏トラモアの海岸で父からこのことを告げられます。その後新しい家族を伴ってインドへ赴任し、1866年11月マラリアに罹りインドからの帰国の途中で亡くなりました。

両親を失ったラフカディオは、敬虔なカトリック信者であった大叔母のもとで育てられたために、13歳の頃から英国ダラム市郊外にあるカトリック系の神学校に入学しますが、そこでの厳格な宗教教育に反発を覚えはじめました。また16歳の時には校庭で遊んでいるときに不幸にも事故に遭い左目を失明。更に追い打ちをかけるように、ハーンの遠縁にあたるヘンリー・モリヌーが事業に失敗し、これに出資していた大叔母サラが破産したためにセント・カスバード・カレッジの中退を余儀なくされたのです。

Lafcadio Hearn’s Time in Ireland

On 1 August, 1852, Patrick Lafcadio Hearn was taken by his mother, Rosa, from his birthplace of Lefkada, Greece, to his father Charles’ family home in Dublin, Ireland. He was only two years old at the time. There is little information about the time Hearn and his mother spent together in Ireland. However, life in a foreign country with a different religion, climate and language was difficult for them both. Struggling to adjust to her new life, Rosa became mentally ill, and her marriage to Charles failed. In the summer of 1854, Rosa returned to Greece alone, leaving Lafcadio in Ireland. The mother and child were never to meet again. Lafcadio was left in the care of Sarah Brenane, his great-aunt. She employed a nanny from Connaught, a region steeped in Celtic culture, to take care of Lafcadio, and they lived at 73 Upper Leeson Street in Dublin.

At that time, Sarah was wealthy, and Lafcadio spent his boyhood summers in a villa in Tramore, County Waterford in the south. He also spent time in Cong, County Mayo, where his aunt Catherine Elwood lived. During this time, he heard many Celtic fairytales and ghost stories, and learnt to swim. It was a happy period in his life.

However, in the summer of 1857, his father Charles married Alicia Goslin Crawford, to whom he had previously been attached. His father broke the news to Lafcadio on a walk along the coast in Tramore. Charles was posted to India and moved there with his new family. However, in November, 1866, he died from malaria on the return journey.

Lafcadio, who had now lost both parents, was raised by his great-aunt. She was a pious Catholic, and at the age of thirteen, Lafcadio was sent to St Cuthbert’s College, a Catholic seminary near Durham in England. There, he rebelled against the strict religious education. At the age of sixteen, he lost the sight in his left eye in a playground accident. His difficulties were compounded when the business of Henry Molyneux, a distant relative, failed. His great-aunt, who had invested in this venture, became bankrupt, and Hearn was forced to leave St Cuthbert’s College.

主催:NPO法人松江ツーリズム研究会、松江市
協力:アイルランド国立図書館、松江市立中央図書館、小泉家
後援:駐日アイルランド大使館、山陰中央新報社

監修:小泉凡
展覧会企画:小泉祥子
デザイン:石川陽春

organizers: NPO Matsue Tourism / Matsue City Municipaly
cooperation: National Library of Ireland / Matsue Municipal Library / Koizumi Family
sponsors: Embassy of Ireland to Japan / The San-in Chuo Shimpo Newspaper Co.,  Ltd.

superviser: Koizumi Bon
coordinator: Koizumi Shoko
designer: Ishikawa Kiyoharu